Developed by the American Psychological Association (APA), the APA style is widely used in the social science, management, humanities, and natural sciences.
6th Edition vs. 7th Edition
The most common APA versions used are the 6th and 7th editions. They have distinct differences, so make sure you confirm which version your professor requires.
APA 6 & 7 Comparison Tables by Walden University.
The in-text component of APA citation includes two main elements: the author's last name and the year of the publication (Ross, 1997), and a third: the page number, whenever quoting directly or paraphrasing a specific section of the text (Ross, 1997, p. 2). For more than one author, list the names in the order they appear in the source (it may not be in alphabetical order).
The list of references on your paper's last page is titled "References" and should be arranged in alphabetical order by first authors' last names.
Citation samples using APA 7th Edition:
|Type of Entry||Sample|
|Book (physical)||AuthorLastName, Initials. (YYYY). Title of book. Publisher.|
|Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. Houghton Mifflin.|
|Book (electronic)||AuthorLastName, initials. (YYYY). Title of book. Publisher. URL|
|Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000168-000|
|Journal (physical)||AuthorLastName, A. B., AuthorLastName, C. D., & AuthorLastName, E. F. (YYYY). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume number, page numbers.|
|Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217.|
|Journal (electronic)||AuthorLastName, A. B., AuthorLastName, C. D., & AuthorLastName, E. F. (YYYY). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume number, page numbers. doi URL|
|David, M. E., & Roberts, J. A. (2023). Me, myself, and I: Self-centeredness, FOMO, and social media use. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement. https://doi.org/10.1037/cbs0000382|
|Website||AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL|
|Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium. https://humanparts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01|
If date is unknown use: (n.d.)